Knitting for Victory! (free knitting patterns included!)


Most of my readers probably don’t knit, but I came across this blog post and had to share!

Originally posted on knitbyahenshop:

knitting and history

[UPDATE: I posted even more patterns from this historic knitting book here in 2013!]

Today is Veterans Day and it is also the 1 year anniversary of when I started this blog. So this post will combine two things I love: history and knitting. With free historic knitting patterns, no less!

As I wrote about in my very first post, what we in the United States call Veterans Day is known to Europe, Canada and most of the world as Remembrance Day. This year we’ll observe the holiday on Monday, but the actual date is the eleventh because Nov. 11 1918 was Armistice day—the day that World War I ended. The United States lost maybe about 100,000 or so soldiers in the Great War. European countries lost millions.

The  Great War, as it was then known, started in 1914, but the U.S. did not join until 1917. During the years the…

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Women of the YMCA in WWI: Kittie Kunz’s Service in YMCA Hut 16


Material related to wartime (and postwar) activities of the YMCA can be easily researched through the help of internet databases, digitized books, collectors forums and various other digital avenues.  What is lacking, however, is information directly related to the individuals who volunteered their time and money to travel to a foreign county to serve donuts to war-weary doughboys waiting to return to their families in the US.

I was lucky enough to track down a large grouping of ephemera collected during the war by a YMCA canteen entertainer, a Miss Kittie Kunz.  Included in the grouping is a selection of rare YMCA “unit history” paperwork which gives names and identities to many of the women and men who served alongside Kittie.  I researched each of the names in hopes of tracking down passport application portraits.  I was overwhelmingly successful and found nearly 75% of the names in the US Passport database that matched perfectly.  Each was listed as being a member of the YMCA or Red Cross, and each matches the date range for the YMCA hut. A neat find!  Please read on to see the faces of the women who served alongside Kittie.  You will also find a smattering of hard-to-find ephemera related to the YMCA.  It’s amazing that Kittie saved some of these items.  Not all the paperwork is contained in this post, but the scanned material gives a quick glimpse into the typical material a YMCA canteen worker would deal with.

Kittie Kunz's YMCA ID

Kittie Kunz’s YMCA ID


Kittie's YMCA Paris Travel Permit

Kittie’s YMCA Paris Travel Permit


Kittie’s YMCA Paris Travel Permit Reverse

Kittie's Permit to Travel to Reims

Kittie’s Permit to Travel to Reims

YMCA War Service Pin Card

YMCA War Service Pin Card

YMCA War Service Pin Card Interior

YMCA War Service Pin Card Interior

Tea Service Notice for the 28th Division

Tea Service Notice for the 28th Division


Here is where my favorite piece of researching WWI material came handy….. I was able to research the names of the women listed in the distribution section and track down their WWI era passport applications.  Here are my results:

YMCA Women

Miss Gertrude Garden - YMCA

Miss Gertrude Garden – YMCA


Miss Dorothy Berry - YMCA

Miss Dorothy Berry – YMCA

Harriet McKenzie - YMCA

Harriet McKenzie – YMCA

Margaret Robinson - YMCA

Margaret Robinson – YMCA

Katherine Parks - YMCA

Katherine Parks – YMCA


Janet Kunz - YMCA (sister to Kittie Kunz)

Janet Kunz – YMCA (sister to Kittie Kunz)

Kittie Kunz - YMCA

Kittie Kunz – YMCA

Pauline Brown - YMCA

Pauline Brown – YMCA


Mary Waden - YMCA

Mary Waden – YMCA

Dora Lewis - YMCA

Dora Lewis – YMCA

Katherine Beakes - YMCA

Katherine Beakes – YMCA

Cora A. Kennedy - YMCA

Cora A. Kennedy – YMCA



Lois Loyhed - Red Cross

Lois Loyhed – Red Cross

Harriet Maxon - Red Cross

Harriet Maxon – Red Cross

Dorothy Peters - Red Cross

Dorothy Peters – Red Cross

Alice McCoy - Red Cross

Alice McCoy – Red Cross

Esther Edmondson - Red Cross

Esther Edmondson – Red Cross

Mary Jones - Red Cross

Mary Jones – Red Cross

Eleanor Little - Red Cross

Eleanor Little – Red Cross

Mary Healy - Red Cross

Mary Healy – Red Cross

The Art of War: Collecting Government Illustrated Booklets and Publications

Today’s post will be a little different than most of my typical photographically-centered material. Various government offices and departments printed these for a multitude of reasons.  Some were printed by the Red Cross, others were aimed at health and hygiene, some were distributed by the Stars and Stripes to help wounded soldiers feel a bond with their Division or branch of the Army, while others were directed towards tourism and cultural sensitivity.  All the scans in today’s post are from my collection and have been picked up over the years for a few dollars each.  Some are very common, while others are scarce.  The most popular amongst collectors are the divisional histories printed and put out by the Stars and Stripes.  Some can fetch upwards of $100 US.

Many of the artists and writers for these publications are unknown and lost to history.  In a few cases I’ve been able to track down the names of the original illustrators.  Here are a few that I’ve researched for this website:


And here are some illustrated booklets which were printed in order to direct US service members stationed or visiting foreign countries:


A Pocket Guide to Luxembourg “Do you know Luxembourg?”


Pocket Guide to the Dutch East Indies


Welcome to Australia


How to See Paris “For the Soldiers of the Allied Armies”


Pocket Guide to the Cities of the Netherlands


Pocket Guide to Paris and Cities of Northern France


Pocket Guide to Egypt


Pocket Guide to France


A Short Guide to Iraq


Pocket Guide to Australia


And here’s an obscure language guide specifically printed for US soldiers, marines and airmen in Iceland.


TM 30-313 Language Guide to Icelandic


This one was given out by Coca-Cola as a notebook and calendar:


WWII Coca-Cola Notebook


These two booklets were aimed at keeping sailors from catching venereal diseases while away on shore leave:


Shore Convoy for Merchant Seamen



Hull Down – Guide to Venereal Diseases in Japan


This rare booklet was a pro-socialist publication”


Victory Through Unionism


Here are some example of divisional histories put out at the end of the war:


Terrify and Destroy – Story of the 10th Armored Division



The 45th Division



“Right to be Proud” – 65th Division Unit History


And these were focused on specific service branches:



American Red Cross Nurses



The Special Service Division



Coastal Artillery Corps – “We Keep ‘em Falling!”


Combat Engineers

Combat Engineers


And some are tough to categorize:

Field Fortifications Guide

Field Fortifications Guide



Australian Booklet


Ellington Field

Ellington Field


How to Hatch a Nest Egg – War Department Pamphlet No. 21-19


29 Gripes About the Filipinos

29 Gripes About the Filipinos

A Mormon Missionary in WWI: Battling Influenza in American Samoa


Byron Miller in World War One

Byron Miller in World War One


When searching for new portraiture to add to PortraitsofWar I generally tend to look for material with identifiable soldiers, uniforms, medals and other researchable information to help shed light on life during wartime.   In this post, I will be researching a photograph of a US Navy sailor who caught my eye during a recent eBay search.

Reverse Side of Postcard

Reverse Side of Postcard


The information written on the back of the postcard shows an identification of the sitter as a B.G. Miller.  He is identified as being a Pharmacist’s Mate 1st Class from Salt Lake City, Utah who was on duty at one point at a hospital in Samoa on August 1st, 1918.  Additional info added to the photo includes an anecdote about his position as a Mormon missionary in Germany during the breakout of the war between Germany and France.

With a little luck and a lot of research I was able to track down our mysterious B.G. Miller.  Byron Gardener Miller was found listed in the Utah World War 1 Military Service Questionnaire on  Please see his card below:

Byron G. Miller in WWI

Byron G. Miller in WWI


It looks like Byron attended the University of Utah for a year before being shipped off for his overseas missionary work. This is likely the reason for his service as a Pharmacist’s Mate with the US NAVY as can be seen in the details of his uniform.

Navy Pharmacist's Rate Patch

Navy Pharmacist’s Mate Rate Patch

The reference to his missionary service in Germany during the outbreak of war in July of 1914 is partially confirmed through my discovery of his listing aboard a ship ledger arriving in Montreal, PQ in September of 1914.


His service in Samoa has also been confirmed through the same series of records.


Sadly, his arrival back in the US in 1919 wasn’t likely a time of joy for the Miller family; a Utah death certificate shows that he died of influenza only a few months later on February 7th, 1920.  Interestingly enough, my research into the US Hospital in Samoa shows that a MASSIVE flu outbreak in the Samoan Islands lead to the deaths of nearly 25% of the population.  The US Navy set up an epidemic commission to deal with the issue.  The results of the intervention in American Samoa were incredible.  Apparently the method of using maritime quarantine lowered mortality rates to nearly 1%.  It’s strange that Byron would die of influenza only a few months later while in the United States……

For the 1919 report please CLICK HERE

1920 Death Certificate

1920 Death Certificate


One of the main goals of this website is to help share photos and pertinent military service information with the families of the men and women depicted in the images I collect. In this case, I’m hoping a Miller family representative will discover a rare image of their ancestor who witnessed an formative time in history.

Vietnam War POW: Foreign Service POW Returns! Vietnam POW – Philip W. Manhard’s Escape




Two years ago I was lucky enough to purchase a large collection of 35mm color slides from a family in New Hampshire. The 5000+ 35mm slides were taken by an unnamed member of the US Foreign Service who was a key member in international affairs in the late 1960s and early 1970s. I’m being judicious and only posting very interesting photos from his collection, and in this example I’m posting a photo of Philip W. Manhard upon his return from Vietnam.   This was his “welcome back” party from being  POW.

I’ve sent a bulk of the 35mm slides to a close member of the Manhard family and hope they will trickle down to the younger relatives.  Special thanks to Dick Manhard for responding to my letter and accepting the slides seen in this post.

Philip W. Manhard as a POW:

Ambassador Henry Broade, Philip Manhard, Noel Gaylor

Original caption: Clark Base, Philippines. U.S. Ambassador to the Phillipines Henry Byroade, gives a handshake to Philip Manhard, highest ranking Civilian captured by the communist, after he arrived here 3/16 following his release. Mayhard, of McLean, Virginia, was a provincial advisor when caaptured in 1969. Center os admiral Noel Gayler, commander Oacific Naval Forces.

Manhard Leaving Plane

Manhard Leaving Plane



Name: Phillip Wallace Manhard
Branch/Rank: CIVILIAN
Date of Birth:
Home City of Record:
Date of Loss: 01-February-68
Country of Loss: SOUTH VIETNAM
Loss Coordinates: 162736  North  1073302 East
Status (in 1973): Returnee
Aircraft/Vehicle/Ground: Ground
Other Personnel in Incident:
Refno: 1013

Source: Compiled by P.O.W. NETWORK from one or more of the following: raw
data from U.S. Government agency sources, correspondence with POW/MIA
families, published sources, interviews and CACCF = Combined Action
Combat Casualty File.




No further information available at this time.

WWI Burlington, VT Portrait Photo – William W. Putnam 310th Cav. Fort Ethan Allen

William W. Putnam of Thomaston, Maine came to Vermont as part of the Machine Gun Troop of the 310th Cav in 1918.  He posed for a photo in a Burlington, VT photo studio while training at Fort Ethan Allen.  He had his photo taken in Burlington after his promotion to sgt (1/1918) at the studio of H. Raymond Paige of 22 Church Street.


Maine service record:
Name: William W. Putnam
Serial Number: 371805
Birth Place: Brewer, Maine
Birth Date: 03 Sep 1897
Residence: Thomaston
Comment: Enl: Ft. Slocum, N. Y., May 10/18. Pvt; Sgt Aug. 1/18. Org: MG Tr 310 Cav to disch. Overseas service: None. Hon disch on demob: Dec. 20, 1918.


William Putnam441



William Putnam442

Henry  Raymond Paige Studio Logo, Burlington, VT


January 1918 Article About the Return of Raymond Paige

January 1918 Article About the Return of Raymond Paige


Raymond Paige in 1920

Raymond Paige in 1920


Harry C. Kolacinski of Milwaukee, WI: WWII Identified Studio Portrait

eBay has been a consistent source of fantastic portraiture for PortraitsofWar for over five years.  The material that pops up on the web is easy to acquire and makes for a fun and interesting research project.  In this case, I was able to track down an identified photo of a US airman wearing a brim-up cap and sporting a light beard.   The photo is identified on the reverse as a Harry Kolacinski.

Harry Kolacinski in WWII

Harry Kolacinski in WWII


Harry was born and raised in Milwaukee, WI.   His major biographical information can be found below:


Army Record

Army Record


Harry’s 1936 Yearbook


Harry in 1936

Harry in 1936


Harry passed away in 1986


WWI Panoramic Photo – The Most Decorated Company of the 29th Division: Company H, 115th Infantry Regiment



One of the most difficult aspects of WWI photography collecting is presenting it in a manner that allows for many people to view and appreciate the content. Each of my scanned panoramic photos takes at least an hour to scan in sections, and subsequently digitally splice together. This post is a particularly good example of a panoramic taken of  H Company of the 115th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division. Note the Native American soldier as well as two soldiers wearing the ribbon for the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC). Sorry about the large file size.

Click HERE for the H Company, 115th Roster

I actually was able to do some research on Company H of the 115th and found some info on a few members that I was able to identify in the photo.


2nd Lt. Patrick Regan

The President of the United States of America, in the name of Congress, takes pleasure in presenting the Medal of Honor to Second Lieutenant (Infantry) Patrick J. Regan, United States Army, for extraordinary heroism on 8 October 1918, while serving with 115th Infantry, 29th Division, in action at Bois-de-Consenvoye, France. While leading his platoon against a strong enemy machinegun nest which had held up the advance of two companies, Second Lieutenant Regan divided his men into three groups, sending one group to either flank, and he himself attacking with an automatic rifle team from the front. Two of the team were killed outright, while Second Lieutenant Regan and the third man were seriously wounded, the latter unable to advance. Although severely wounded, Second Lieutenant Regan dashed with empty pistol into the machinegun nest, capturing 30 Austrian gunners and four machineguns. This gallant deed permitted the companies to advance, avoiding a terrific enemy fire. Despite his wounds, he continued to lead his platoon forward until ordered to the rear by his commanding officer.

Congressional Medal of Honor

Congressional Medal of Honor

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 50 (April 12, 1919)

Action Date: 8-Oct-18

Rank: Second Lieutenant

Regiment: 115th Infantry

Division: 29th Division



2nd Lt. Patrick Regan

2nd Lt. Patrick Regan


I was recently (11/2014) contacted by a grandson of Lt. Regan alerting me to his presence in the photo.  I had no idea he was present in the photo based on my prior research and the visual evidence in the photo.  His double wound stripe stood out but wasn’t enough to make a 100% identification.  Upon contact with Lt. Regan’s grandson, I was able to confirm that this is a previously unknown and non-digitized version of the Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient.  I’m posting the publicly available photo here:

Lt. Regan

2nd Lt. Regan




Captain, U.S. Army
Company H, 115th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division, A.E.F.
Date of Action: October 16, 1918
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Artie E. Bolton, Captain, U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action in the Bois- de-la Grande, Montagne, France, October 16, 1918. Having been ordered to take up his position on the final objective, Captain Bolton made a personal reconnaissance of his company front line, during which time he was subjected to the artillery fire of both friendly and enemy guns and machine guns directed on his position. He again went out on the same mission and captured 20 prisoners who were carrying a machine gun.

Distinguished Service Cross

Distinguished Service Cross

General Orders No. 44, W.D., 1919
Home Town: Wingina, VA


Captain Artie E. Bolton


Robert S. Landstreet

Place of Birth: Maryland, Baltimore
Home of record: Baltimore Maryland

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to First Lieutenant (Infantry) Robert S. Landstreet, United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in action while serving with 115th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division, A.E.F., near Bois-de-Consenvoye and Bois-de-la Grande Montague, France, October 8 – 16, 1918. On October 8 First Lieutenant Landstreet led his platoon through machine-gun and rifle fire in an advance which resulted in the capture of 300 prisoners and 12 machine-guns. On the morning of October 16 lie volunteered, with one sergeant, and straightened out the line of an adjacent unit. His movements were under constant machine-gun fire, and so close to the enemy that he, with his sergeant, captured two prisoners while accomplishing their mission.

Distinguished Service Cross

Distinguished Service Cross



Lt. Landstreet


 Hugh P. McGainey

Place of Birth: Maryland, Baltimore
Home of record: Baltimore Maryland

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Sergeant Hugh P. McGainey (ASN: 1285511), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in action while serving with 115th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division, A.E.F., near Verdun, France, October 8 – 15, 1918. In the Bois-de-Consenvoye, east of the Meuse, Sergeant McGainey, in command of his platoon, led his men, under heavy machine-gun fire, and captured approximately 500 prisoners, three fieldpieces, and many machine-guns. On October 15 he voluntarily exposed himself to warn his men against gas, and was wounded by shrapnel. He refused to go to the hospital until ordered to do so by the medical officer.

Distinguished Service Cross

Distinguished Service Cross

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 3 (1919)

Action Date: October 8 – 15, 1918


Sgt. Hugh P. McGainey

Sgt. Hugh P. McGainey


Pietro De Bernardinis

Company H, 115th Infantry.  For extraordinary heroism in action near Verdun, France, October 17th, 1918. In the Bose de Consenvoye, east of the Meuse, Pvt. De Berdaninis, acting in the capacity of a runner, carried three successive messages through heavy barrage of both own own and the enemy’s artillery, traversing a patch where two men had previously been killed by the same barrage.

Distinguished Service Cross

Distinguished Service Cross

Home address: Louis Brino, 3921 Pratt Street, Baltimore, MD.

Pietro De Berardinis

Private Pietro De Berardinis


Corporal, U.S. Army
Company H, 115th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division, A.E.F.
Date of Action: October 8 – 29, 1918
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to John E. Ferguson, Corporal, U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action near Samogneux, France, October 8 – 29, 1918. Throughout the offensive east of the Meuse, near Samogneux, Corporal Ferguson displayed exceptional bravery and endurance as a battalion runner, repeatedly carrying important messages through intense artillery and machine-gun fire after other runners had been killed in traversing the same routes. On numerous occasions he alone was responsible for the maintenance of both forward and rear liaison.

Distinguished Service Cross

Distinguished Service Cross

General Orders No. 37, W.D., 1919
Home Town: New York, NY

Cpl. John E. Ferguson

Cpl. John E. Ferguson



Paul Reed Gilbert

Name: Paul Reed Gilbert
Race: white
Address: 510 N. Pulaski St., Baltimore
Birth Place: Baltimore, Md.
Birth Date: 22 Feb 1898
Comment: NG pvt; pvt 1c 4/20/17; corp 5/25/17; sgt 10/27/18, Co L 5 Md. Inf; Co H 115 Inf 10/1/17, Hon disch 6/5/19, Overseas 6/15/18 to 5/24/19, Center Sector; Meuse-Argonne
Maryland in the World War 1917-1919; Military and Naval Service Records, Volumes I & II
Order of St. Sava

Paul’s grandson alerted us to his presence in this photo.  Thanks!

Sgt. Paul R. Gilbert

Sgt. Paul R. Gilbert


Thomas F. Streb

Place of Birth: Maryland, Baltimore
Home of record: Baltimore Maryland

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Private Thomas F. Streb (ASN: 1285690), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in action while serving with Company H, 115th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division, A.E.F., near Verdun, France, 17 October 1918. In the Bois-de-Consenvoye east of the Meuse, Private Streb operated his automatic rifle on a post enfiladed by direct machine-gun fire during a desperate counterattack by the enemy until the rifle was damaged by the enemy’s fire and he himself was wounded. He remained on post continuing to defend same with an ordinary rifle. He was later gassed and refused to go to the hospital until ordered by his company commander.

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 27 (1919)

Action Date: 17-Oct-18

Rank: Private

Thomas F. Streb

Thomas F. Streb

Veterans Days 1921 – Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Original Ceremony Service Attendant

As of September 1920, the US Quartermaster Graves Registration Service had successfully identified over 90% of the bodies of US servicemen who died overseas during WWI.  The nation was still in mourning from the losses of the war, and the government looked to other countries for a suitable ceremony to honor those whose bodies were never identified.  In the fall of 1920, the caskets of four unidentified U.S. soldiers were chosen for reburial in Washington D.C.  One pallbearer, SGT Edward Younger, chose one body to be the Unknown Soldier of WWI.

The remains were transported aboard the USS Olympia, the flagship of Vermont’s Own Admiral Dewey, and arrived home on November 9th, 1921.  The body lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda for two days, where over 90,000 people quietly filtered through.  This Unknown Soldier was buried with full services on November 11th, 1921.

As I pawed through my large collection of WWI and WWII photography looking for a suitable candidate for a Veteran’s Day post, I came across one photo that stood out as a perfect blogpost.

This veteran is wearing an Indian Wars medal on his chest, and looks distinguished in his black cap and jacket.  This photo was taken only moments after he was a member of the first Tomb of the Unknown Soldier ceremony on November 11th, 1921.  He inscribed a quick note to a loved one on the reverse.  I can’t find a list of the members of that first delegation anywhere, but I’m sure he is one of the visible veterans standing around the casket in this photo:

Courtesy of Wikipedia Commons

Although his identity is a mystery to me, maybe his name will come to the surface after this post hits the web.  What a fitting photo post for Veterans Day!

Special thanks to David R. Berry for the following message:

May I submit to you that the identity of the distinguished gentleman is Mr. Isaac B. Millner. US Navy, Civil War veteran –a seaman aboard the USS HARTFORD, flagship of Adm Farragut at the Battle of Mobile Bay 5 Aug 1864. Millner had a life-long interest in Adm Farragut, attending several commemorations of Farraguts life and career.

He was affiliated with the Dept. of Anthropology at the National Museum; holder of several patents; a specialist in Native American and Micronisian Indian cultures; a modeler for the Smithsonian working in the medium of paper’ machete and a member of the US Geological Survey. Author of the book: The Last Cruise (1917)

You will find many notations for him in Google under his full name as well as his initials I B Millner. He is mistakenly noted in the 1920 Census as Isaac B Mi-(one L) ner. What his relationship with Mrs. Clara A Wright Of Wincasset, Maine, might be is unclear, but one might note that the description and the address texts on the back of the portrait were written in two distinctly different hands. It could be that Mrs. Wright was a friend of his wife Mrs. Mary Millner.

A 1929 photo of IB Millner appears here: